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Audio and Video File Formats: An Introduction

FILE FORMATS

There are several commonly used audio file formats. There are fewer video file formats, but video audio file extensions can be confusing. This is just a brief description of the most commonly used audio and video file formats and systems.

AAC: Advanced Audio Coding This is the audio file format used by Apple for the iTunes Music Store, and may appear with the M4A filename extension. It’s better than MP3 for sound quality. It was developed as part of the MPEG4 group owned by Dolby (see below).

AU: This audio file format is the standard used by Java, Sun and Unix.

MPEG: Moving Pictures Expert Group There are now a number of MPEG types, described below.

MPEG-1: This is used in digital cameras and camcorders for small video clips. VHS quality playback can be expected from MPEG-1.

MPEG-2: Used for digital satellite TV, professional movie recording and home DVD recording. Provides layouts for multi-channel surround sound recordings.

MPEG-3: MPEG-3 was proposed as an entity, but eventually merged with MPEG-2.

MPEG-4: This is the newest MPEG system and it is used to stream internet content. It is also used in portable video recorders and for Internet downloads. Required for DivX. It enhances digital broadcasting and interactive graphics and multimedia.

MP3: Digital audio files, most commonly used for storing and playing music. It compresses files to about 10% of a normal audio file, and a normal music track will be around 5-6MB in size. MP3 stands for MPEG-1 Audio Layer 3, not MPEG-3 as many think. A typical MP3 audio file is near CD quality.

OGG: An audio file format that supports a variety of codecs, the most popular of which is the Vorbis audio codec. However, MP3 files are much more widely supported than Vorbis.

AR: Real Audio This format is designed for streaming audio over the Internet. It is a standalone file format with all audio information stored in the file itself.

WAV: The simplest of the audio file formats, developed by Microsoft and IBM, and integrated into Windows 95. It is an uncompressed audio file format with large file sizes (10 x MP3), and does not require no additional processing to be read. The WAV file consists of three blocks of information: the RIFF block which identifies the file as a WAV file, the FORMAT block which identifies parameters such as sample rate, and the DATA block which contains the actual data or l music sample.

WMA: Windows Media Audio A digital system invented by Microsoft and used in portable digital audio players. Using WMA, a file can be programmed in such a way that it cannot be copied and can be used to protect copyrights.

WMF: Windows Media format These are audio-video files including WMA and video codecs. They provide high quality and multimedia security for streaming and downloading and playing applications on computers.

WMV: Windows Media Video Used in Windows Media Player, it is used to stream, download and play audio and video content.

When it comes to audio and video file formats, you’ll sometimes notice the term “codec.” A codec is simply short for encoder-decoder (or compressor-decompressor). A primary function of a codec is to compress audio or video data streams to speed up the transmission of digital audio samples and video images and reduce storage space.

The goal of all codecs is to keep file size to a minimum while maintaining audio and video quality. A quick indication of where the codec is in the transmit and receive path is:

Video device (eg camcorder) – video capture card – digitized video – codec (compresses digital information) – result (MPEG2, AVI, WMV, etc.) – codec (decompress) – video images – display device.

Between the two codecs, the compressed result is transferred to the transmitted display device, stored on file, etc.). So to condense the stream even more, we could essentially describe it as:

raw data – codec – transmission – codec – playback

It’s simplistic, but it shows where the codecs are used. Therefore, to play a movie, video or piece of music in a certain format, you need a codec in your computer to allow you to decompress the file and play it.

Here is free software that checks the codec used by a video system and the codec your system needs to play it:

codec tool.

Different video file formats are needed to meet the requirements of various video devices. Likewise, audio file formats are designed to meet the needs of specific delivery methods and storage and playback devices introduced by major companies such as Microsoft, Sony, and Apple. Thus, Sony invented the UMD (Universal Media Disk) for the PSP (Playstation Portable), and Apple introduced the AAC (M4A) for its iPod.

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